The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy took more than a century in the United States, but that long development entered its first phase from the s through the s.
Grant, embarked with his wife on a two-year tour of the world. At almost every location, he was greeted as a hero. In England, the son of the Duke of Wellington, whose father had vanquished Napoleon, greeted Grant as a military genius, the primary architect of Union victory in the American Civil War.
Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, welcomed Grant as a nation builder, who had accomplished on the battlefield something—national unity—that Bismarck was attempting to create for his own people. The various meanings imparted to it offer a useful way of outlining why the Civil War was so pivotal in our own history.
In its aftermath, during the era of Reconstruction, Americans struggled to come to terms with these dramatic changes and, temporarily, established biracial democratic government on the ashes of slavery. In the physical destruction it brought to the South, the economic changes it produced throughout the nation, and the new ideas it spawned, the Civil War altered the lives of several generations of Americans.
The war produced a loss of life unprecedented in the American experience. Thecombatants who perished nearly outnumber those who died in all other American wars combined.
For those who lived through it, the Civil War would always remain the defining experience of their lives. The Civil War is sometimes called the first modern war, although what constitutes "modernity" in warfare is a matter of debate.
It was the first war to bring the full impact of the industrial revolution to bear on the battlefield. Railroads transported troops and supplies, and railroad junctions such as Chattanooga, Atlanta, and Petersburg became major military objectives.
The telegraph made possible instantaneous communication between generals and between the battlefield and home front. The war took place soon after a revolution in arms manufacture had replaced the traditional musket, accurate at only a short range, with the more modern, and deadly, rifle and bullet.
This development changed the nature of combat, emphasizing the importance of heavy fortifications and elaborate trenches and giving those on the defensive—usually Southern armies—an immense advantage over attacking forces. The rifle produced the appalling casualty statistics of Civil War battles.
At Gettysburg, there were nearly fifty thousand dead, wounded, and missing. Total wartime casualties numbered well over one million, in an American population of around thirty-two million. The Civil War began as a conventional contest of army versus army but by the end had become a war of society against society, with slavery, the foundation of the southern social order, becoming a target.
Certainly, the Union overshadowed the Confederacy in manpower and economic resources. But the Union also had a far greater task. It had to conquer an area as large as western Europe, while the Confederacy, like the American patriots during the War of Independence, could lose battle after battle and still win the war, if their opponents tired of the conflict.
Thus, political leadership was crucial to victory, and Lincoln proved far more successful than his Confederate counterpart, Jefferson Davis, in mobilizing public sentiment. One historian has suggested that if the North and South had exchanged presidents, the South would have won the war.
In this sense, the Civil War forms part of the nineteenth-century process of nation-building. It was conceived as neither the reclamation of ancestral lands nor the institutional embodiment of a common ancestry, language, or culture. Rather, as Lincoln himself insisted, the nation was the incarnation of a universal set of ideas, centered on political democracy and human liberty.
These principles, of course, had been enunciated by the Founding Fathers, but only with the destruction of slavery could the United States seriously claim to represent to the world the idea of human liberty. It is easy to forget how decentralized the United States was inand how limited were the powers of the federal government.
There was no national banking system, no national railroad gauge, no national tax system, not even reliable maps of the areas where the war would take place. The army in numbered 14, men, the federal budget was minuscule, and nearly all functions of government were handled at the state and local level.
The Civil War created the modern national state in America.Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era Jump to The paramilitary organizations that arose in the mid to late s were part of continuing insurgency in the South after the Civil War, List of 19th-century African-American civil rights activists;.
Sep 12, · Reconstruction was a time of upheaval in America, after the civil war ex slaves were free US citizens with the right to vote.
Blacks were elected to local, state and federal offices for the first time in American history.
|The Second Industrial Revolution, - US History Scene||The original Northern objective in the Civil War was the preservation of the Union—a war aim with which virtually everybody in the free states agreed.|
|SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: U.S. History: Big Business in the Industrial Age||Bison had yielded to cattle; mountains had been blasted and bored.|
Watch video · The Industrial Revolution occurred when agrarian societies became more industrialized and urban. Learn where and when the Industrial Revolution started, and the .
After surviving the Great War, Americans grew into a Jazz Age, characterized by carefree living and a renewal of spirit. This renaissance especially affected the intentions of African Americans and women, as artists created a separate Black culture and women experienced new freedoms and opportunities.
The late 19th-century United States is probably best known for the vast expansion of its industrial plant and output. At the heart of these huge increases was the mass production of goods by machines.
This process was first introduced and perfected by British textile manufacturers. In the century. Watch video · A century later, the legacy of Reconstruction would be revived during the civil rights movement of the s, as African Americans fought for the .