Many thanks to the author for submitting this manuscript in HTML format. Karen Ostlund The University of Texas at Austin Scientists engage in procedures of investigation to gain knowledge of natural phenomena. These tactics and strategies, the skills scientists use in their pursuit of understanding, are summarized below: Science begins with observations of objects and events; these observations lead to the asking of questions.
Within methodology we have methods and approaches, in which methods are the fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, and approaches are language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom.
However, in the Indian scenario CLT is still not the preferred approach for language teaching as indicated by the practitioners of language teaching. Though it is being followed to a certain extent as a modern teaching technique and is being implemented in the classrooms according to the learning needs and background of the learners, yet the findings indicate reluctance on the part of teachers in using it as a language teaching methodology.
Consequently a study is required to find out and explore the challenges being entailed by CLT resulting in hesitant attitude of teachers in using it in the classroom. Simultaneously, the paper seeks to compare and contrast it with the traditional Teaching methods so that the strengths and limitations of the two could be brought forth and a blended methodology could be suggested for effective language learning.
Methodology, CLT, Traditional Methods, Grammar, Language Learning Introduction The period from the s to the s is known as "The Age of Methods," during which a number of quite detailed prescriptions for language teaching emerged. In the middle-methods period, a variety of methods were proclaimed as successors to the then prevailing Situational Language Teaching and Audio-Lingual methods.
In the s, with the evolution of more interactive views of language teaching, these methods got overshadowed by Communicative Language Teaching CLT approach. The basis of this approach was a broad set of principles which advocated that: After having established the importance of communicative approach in the language classroom, linguists and researchers found that electronic discourse tends to be lexically and syntactically more complex than oral discourse Warschauer, a and features a broad range of linguistic functions beneficial for language learning Chun, ; Kern, ; Wang, Literature Review According to B.
Kumaravadivelu Communicative language teaching CLT which started in the early s has become the dynamic power that shapes the planning, implementation, and evaluation of English language teaching ELT programmers nearly in all parts of the world. In another method, I would have had to use simple language and familiar phrases to communicate in the target language, and even then, I could not be sure that my students knew and understood what it was that they were saying.
The present paper seeks to bring out the advantages and limitations of the two methods as experienced by the teachers in the state of Rajasthan India and aims at identifying the more effective methodology of language teaching Traditional Methods of Language Teaching Among the traditional methods popular ones are Grammar translation method, Direct Method and Audio Lingual Method.
The three traditional methods focused more on learning about a language and as such were based on the following principles - A careful analysis of the target written language, particularly its grammar.
As with any other process, the demands and needs of language learning keep on changing and so should the methodology and approach. Attar and Chopra, It can be traced back to Hymeswho proposed that knowing a language involved more than knowing a set of grammatical, lexical, and phonological rules.
Limitations of Traditional Methods of Language Learning The traditional methods focus and emphasize mainly on the learning of grammar rule and vocabulary and as such do not pay much attention to the four skills mainly LSRW. The student tries to understand every single word and its grammatical form, because he believes it is essential for understanding the text.
Most importantly, traditional methods regarded language learning as transfer of knowledge with the help of board and rules rather than considering it as a skill, where learning of rules and vocabulary items in isolation could not yield the desired learning output.
In order to use the language effectively learners need to develop communicative competence—the ability to use the language they are learning, appropriately, in a given social encounter. Hymes' notion of communicative competence was elaborated by a number of practice-oriented language educators, most notably by Canale and Swain who contended that communicative competence comprises grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence, and strategic competence.
Thus with s came the approach of CLT, which established interaction as the means and goal of learning a language and as such involved incorporation of teaching techniques like role plays, pair work, simulations etc.
Though still a popular approach among the classrooms, it has its own challenges, like, challenge of inculcating Self Learning, since the teacher involvement is minimal Communicative Language Teaching CLT Approach The emergence of Communicative Language Teaching approach has led to many innovations in the field.
Its origin can be traced back to the vast human trafficking emerging in North America and Europe as immigrants and guest workers, thus resulting in language teaching for specific purpose and combined with functional-notional level of language learning, forming a cohesive whole: CLT today has resulted from many experiments and modifications over the years since its inception in when it was first practiced in Germany in a rather crude form.
A few years later, in its practice, the practical aspect of language teaching and learning was emphasized instead of Frontiers of Language and Teaching … Mazhar discusses five categories in which the CLT authentic material reliant curriculum is based.
These are as follows: It includes teaching of English through different activities. This looks at the learner as an individual with a pre-defined set of psychological strands.
This must not, as it cannot, be overlooked while shaping curriculum, as it demands certain respect for the learner.
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