Received Mar 27; Accepted Nov
The utero vaginal canal is to be explored under general anaesthesia after the placenta is expelled. In this true post partum hemorrhage the bleeding occurs subsequent to expulsion of placenta majority. Secondary Post partum hemorrhage: Secondary post partum hemorrhage is bleeding from the genital tract more than 24 hours after delivery of the placenta and may occur upto 6 week later.
The bleeding usually occurs between 8th to 14th day of delivery. The causes of late post partum hemorrhage are- 1. Retained bits of cotyledon or membranes commonest 2. Infection and separation of slough over a deep cervico-vaginal laceration.
Endometritis and sub involution of the placental site- due to delayed healing process. Secondary hemorrhage from caesarean section wound usually occur between days.
Withdrawal bleeding following oestrogen therapy for suppression of lactation. Offensive lochia if infection is a contributory factor.
Sub involution of uterus. The bleeding is bright red and varying amount. Rarely it may be brisk. Ultrasonography is usual in detecting the bits of placenta inside the uterine cavity. Nursing management of PPH: Assess maternal history for risk factors, plan accordingly and communicate to the perinatal area.
Assess pulse pressure, recording consistently less than 30bpm are consistent with hypertensive crisis. Palpate the bladder distension, which may interfere with contracting of the uterus. Inspect for intactness of any parineal area.Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to an estimated blood loss in excess of ml following a vaginal birth and a loss greater than ml during a Caesarean section.
Major haemorrhage is defined as an estimated blood loss of more than ml or the transfusion of 5 or more units of blood or treatment of coagulopathy.
According to Dawn Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is the term denoting "excessive haemorrhage from the genital tract at any time after the birth of the baby up to the end of puerperium amounting to a degree affecting the general condition of the patient. This excessive blood loss is called a postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and it happens in up to 5 percent of births.
Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Library. Postpartum hemorrhage: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF): in collaboration with .
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a significantly life-threatening complication that can occur after both vaginal and caesarean births (Ricci & Kyle, ).
Essay on brain hemorrhage A cerebral hemorrhage (also spelled haemorrhage) is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the brain tissue itself. It is alternatively called. Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of blood more than ml or 1, ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.
Some have added the requirement that there also be signs or symptoms of low blood volume for the condition to exist. . This is the period from the completed delivery of the baby until the completed delivery of the placenta.
Data from several sources, including several large randomized trials performed in industrialized countries, indicate that the prevalence rate of PPH of more than mL is approximately 5% when active management is used versus 13% when expectant management is used.