Pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects essay

Posted on August 29, by Scott Alexander [Content note: We are the only developed nation that lets drugmakers set their own prices, maximizing profits the same way sellers of chairs, mugs, shoes, or any other manufactured goods would.

Pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects essay

Veterinary Resources This is a list of citations and summaries of veterinary research journal articles which are applicable to mitral valve disease and cavalier King Charles spaniels.

This list is in chronological order, from to the current date, with the most recent additions added at the bottom of this page. Hyper-linked titles are linked to the actual articles which are available on-line. Angiocardiograms are radiographs made while a radiopaque medium is circulating through the heart and closely associated vessels.

In selective angiocardiography, the contrast medium is injected through a catheter, the tip of which has been positioned into a specific vessel or cardiac chamber to visualize best a suspected abnormality based upon the clinical findings.

The principles in selecting the chamber or vessel for the injection are based primarily upon the knowledge that cardiac valves are normally unidirectional and blood pressures in the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta normally exceed the pressures in corresponding right heart structures.

In dogs with suspected valvular insufficiencies, injections are made into the vessel or cardiac chamber from which the contrast medium would regurgitate i. Patent ductus arteriosus, as in man, was found predominantly in females. Breed-specific prevalence rates were significantly greater in purebred dogs than in mongrels, and the breed distributions of patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, persistent right aortic arch, and tetralogy of Fallot were significantly different than would be expected if all breeds were equally susceptible to each type of malformation.

On the basis of these observations, two hypotheses were made: Preliminary genetic studies confirmed the specific hereditary transmission of valvular pulmonic stenosis in beagles, persistent right aortic arch in German shepherds, and conal septal defects including ventricular septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot in keeshonden.

The pattern of inheritance of these defects was not consistent with any simple genetic hypothesis.

Pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects essay

Patent ductus arteriosus in dogs of poodle ancestry and fibrous subaortic stenosis in Newfoundlands were shown provisionally to be transmitted in a manner consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance.

The significance of these findings is considered in relation to present and future understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. Mason, Eugene Braunwald, James W. Sonnenblick, John Ross, Jr. Constriction of the pulmonary artery or thoracic inferior vena cava was maintained for 2 wk while daily measurements were made of plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, plasma volume, hematocrit, serum sodium and potassium concentrations, sodium and water balance, body weight, and arterial, caval, and atrial pressures.

The initial response to constriction was a reduction in blood pressure, a rise in plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, and water intake, and nearly complete sodium retention. In the days after moderate constriction plasma volume and body weight increased with development of ascites and edema ; blood pressure, sodium excretion, plasma renin acvitity, and plasma aldosterone returned to normal.

Pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects essay

In animals in which blood pressure was not restored, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone remained elevated throughout the period of constriction.

Single injections of converting enzyme inhibitor reduced blood pressure when plasma renin activity was elevated. Chronic infusion of the inhibitor in dogs with thoracic inferior vena caval constriction prevented the restoration of blood pressure and suppressed the rise in plasma aldosterone; sodium retention and volume expansion were less than in control experiments.

Thus the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an essential role in the maintenance of blood pressure during the genesis of congestive failure. Initially, the restoration of blood pressure is dependent upon circulating angiotensin II; in the later stages, blood pressure is dependent upon the increase in plasma volume.

Lowell Maughan, Artin A. Shoukas, Kiichi Sagawa, Myron L. The instantaneous isovolumic and ejecting pressure-volume relationship of the right ventricle was studied in 11 cross-circulated, isolated canine hearts to characterize the right ventricular contractile state.

Accurate measurement of volume was achieved by the use of a water-filled, thin latex balloon in the right ventricle connected to a special volume loading and transducing chamber. Pressure was measured with a miniature pressure transducer mounted within the balloon.

Wide variations in loading conditions were achieved by changing the volume of air above the volumetric chamber. The pressure and volume data were collected from multiple beats under a constant contractile state in the same mode of contraction while the left ventricle was vented to air.

Linear regression analysis applied to each of the isochronal pressure-volume data sets at msec intervals from the onset of contraction showed a highly linear correlation between the pressure and the volume. Both the slope and the volume intercept of the regression lines changed with time throughout the cardiac cycle.

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The maximal slope of the regression line E,, averaged 2. Epinephrine infusions of J Appl Physiol ; Rapid shallow breathing evoked by selective stimulation of airway C fibres in dogs. J Physiol Vol pp This section on autism discusses the many theories of the causes of autism spectrum disorders in light of recent research.

Written by Dr. Lewis Mehl-Madrona as part of a comprehensive site on children with brain injury, developmental disorders and related neurometabolic conditions. This theory was developed through deductive reasoning. Chinn & Kramer, , defined deductive reasoning as going from a general concept to a more specific concept.

Good, , related that there was a balance between analgesia and side effects in which two outcomes can be deduced: (1) a decrease in pain, and (2) a decrease in side effects. The theory of a balance between analgesia and side effects was originally developed from the acute pain maagement guidelines published in by.

Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.

Although the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of CNMP has been increasing in recent years (Joranson, Ryan, Gilson & Dahl, ) and has been endorsed by numerous professional societies (AAPM, APS, ; American Geriatric Society, ; Pain Society, ), the use of opioids remains controversial due to concerns about side effects, .

The nurse and physician collaborate to effectively manage acute pain. Systemic opioid analgesics or epidural opioids or anesthetic agents are indicated. Medication for side effects is given as needed. Patients are adults with the ability to learn, set goals, and communicate symptoms. Nurses have current knowledge of pain management.

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Opium - Wikipedia