These variations arise because of social and cultural factors, where individuals or groups of individuals live. Shape or form of language of a person or group of people less influenced by environmental or extra lingual factors that come into contact with it.
In Creole studies, the European-centric focus on contact languages that rose in the historical context of European colonization, above all in the Caribbean, is still widespread but attempts are now being made to widen the perspective. The recently published Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures APiCS, Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath, Huber focuses on a majority of European-lexified contact languages 57 languages but what is new is the inclusion of several less-studied non-Indo-European based pidgin and creole languages 7 African, 7 Asian and 1 Australian.
The book contains six articles, an introduction by the editors, as well as an area, language and subject index. In their four-paged introduction, the editors of the volume, Isabelle Buchstaller, Anders Holmberg and Mohammed Almoaily outline the necessity for more work on non-Indo-European contact varieties and the difficulties of gathering data on these varieties.
The project of the six articles in the volume is to give a platform to the history, genesis, and typology of some non-European based contact languages.
The two first chapters deal with the reconstruction of extinct varieties formerly spoken in the Pacific from scant historical data from the 18th and 19th century.
Three historical sources that belong to different genres giving linguistic and sociolinguistic information on Maritime Polynesian Pidgin are questioned in view of a reconstruction of some phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexical and sociolinguistic aspects of the variety: Drechsel states that in spite of the different names these colonial observers give to the varieties they report on, we are actually dealing with closely related varieties of Maritime Polynesian Pidgin with features that confirm grammatical patterns and linguistic usages already described for Pidgin Hawaiian and Pidgin Maori.
Drechsel points out that the analyzed corpora constitute philological and sociohistorical pillars for a fairly stable indigenous pidgin that survived in some areas of the Pacific until the end of the nineteenth or even the twentieth century.
Grant gives evidence for the existence of a Micronesian pidgin on Tobi island western Carolines in the northern Pacific in the nineteenth century, illustrated by the materials vocabulary list and sentences collected and published in by Horace Holden, an American sailor held in captivity on the island of Tobi.
Interestingly, the morphosyntactic features are not consistent with modern Tobian. The study is based on five morpho-syntactic features of gpa: Interestingly, the majority of these hypotheses must be rejected: A shift to the lexifier language Gulf Arabic is observed in this particular feature whereas for the other features learners either fossilize or shift towards a gpa norm.
The most-studied contact situations leading to the emergence of pidgins and creoles in e. Fanakalo, a southern African pidgin that has emerged in the first half of the 19th century is clearly lexified by a non-Indo-European language, Zulu Bantu with a certain amount of content words from English or Africaans.
Mesthrie compares several structural features of Fanakalo with those of Atlantic Creoles and concludes that Fanakalo shows the opposite of features associated with Atlantic restructured varieties. Its grammar resembles more a basic English e. However, Mesthrie points out complexities in aspect and relative clause formation that are unlike English.
The authors point out that Sarnami cannot be considered a creole language in the traditional sense and is certainly not a pidgin. Their study is based on recent field work in Suriname.
First they discuss koineization, the process which gave birth to Sarnami as an independent language, and then address contemporary contact induced change in the grammar of Sarnami.
Finally, they conclude that the language appears to be converging towards Dutch and Sranan in the domain of clausal word order sov to svo. Evidence from Arabic-based pidgins Bongor Arabic, Juba Arabic, Pidgin Madame, Gulf Pidgin Arabicfrom Ki-Nubi, from Arabic foreigner-directed and foreigner speech, and from first language acquisition shows that the source of most verbs in these varieties is the Arabic morphological imperative.
In the L1 and L2 acquisition of other languages, e.
However, Versteegh shows convincingly how the analogy with Arabic suggests that the infinitive as a main source for initial verb formation derives from its function as a directive in those languages. This is a valuable collection of articles that covers diachronic and synchronic aspects from a broad variety of non-European based pidgins spoken all over the world: It is undeniably a very interesting and most valuable book for researchers and students of language contact because it broadens the restricted focus on European-based contact varieties.A Report on Pidgins and Creoles, Varieties of a European Language and Several Non-European Languages.
1, words. 5 pages.
The Role of Speaking in Language Learning. 2, words. 6 pages. An Observation of the Phonology, Semantics, and Differences in Communication of . The recently published Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures (APiCS, Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath, Huber ) focuses on a majority of European-lexified contact languages (57 languages) but what is new is the inclusion of several less-studied non-Indo-European based pidgin and creole languages (7 African, 7 Asian and 1 Australian).
Strictly speaking, PCs are new language varieties, which developed out of contacts between colonial nonstandard varieties of a European language and several non-European languages around the Atlantic and in the Indian and Pacific Oceans during the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries.
Creoles, Pidgins and the Evolution of Languages. BY The counterpart of nonstandard varieties of European languages today, it was, as the adjective vulgar (from Latin former chair in the department of linguistics, University of Chicago.
He has written extensively on the development of creoles, genetic linguistics, and language . Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains rutadeltambor.com was also used for story-telling, oratory.
Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them, and indeed, to any other language in the world. It is the last remaining descendant of one of the pre-Indo-European languages of Western Europe, the others being extinct outright.
Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the traditional comparative method except by.